Rest, Contemplation, and Peace
Cover. Shisen-do ['Hall of Immortal Poets'], Kyoto, Japan [1641]. Landscape Architect: Ishikawa Jōzan [1583–1672]. Photographer: Sskmsnr.
'In its most real meaning a garden ... must be a place of repose, of contemplation, of spiritual communion with Nature. There can a man loaf, and invite his soul; and, though that soul may be shrivelled and shrunk ... it will swell and grow and blossom in the atmosphere of the place.'1

- Mrs. Basil Taylor



Dear Reader,

In 1960, probably the most influential psychiatrist and psychoanalyst to have ever walked the Earth, Carl G. Jung wrote: ‘…the lack of meaning in life is a soul-sickness whose full extent and import our age has not yet begun to comprehend.’2

We are now experiencing the fate that Jung prophesised. What we observe in the UK population today: boredom, demoralisation, low self-esteem, inferiority feelings, defeatism, depression, anxiety, guilt, frustration, hostility, spouse or child abuse, insatiable hedonism, abnormal sexual behaviour, etc.3 - are the destructive symptoms of soul-sickness, and gaining a greater foothold with each passing day. 

In the context of architecture and the urban landscape, the problem of soul-sickness begins with the home, and what is euphemistically called a ‘garden’ today. In such ‘gardens’ one sees empty stretches of concrete, tarmac and grass;  a tangle of bushes, one or two private cars, and the preternaturally ugly ‘wheelie bin’; but few people, if any, because conditions for outdoor stays [the key word is staying], is more or less impossible. 

Under these conditions most residents prefer to remain inside,4 what are most certainly sensory-reduction environments,5 in front of the television: exposed daily to the insidious influence of various political and non-political strategies [psychological warfare, propaganda, advertising, etc.] used to change the feelings and thoughts of the masses.6 Arguably, its most effective, most dangerous, and most secret weapons are those that we cannot see at all. Fear is one of them.7

Something is missing.8 Something has always been missing - and only our own conditioning, and subsequent blindness, has kept us from developing it.9

This is a garden in its most real meaning: a seamless extension of the main living areas, blending the prospect of casual leisure and visual pleasure with refuge from the wind, the rain, the strong rays of the sun, and the eyes of an inquisitive world outside. But perhaps its most important role is as a space in-between the inside and the outside – a sort of third world10 or temenos ‘cut off’ from artificial environments and the televised fear dispensed by the mass media.11
 
Here, if there is a wish to do so, one can set aside a brief period of time in daily life- five minutes a day are sufficient - and rest in the act of contemplation: Rest in the presence of nature's flows and rhythms ['Wu wei']. Rest in the breath [the ‘life force’, or ‘vital principle’]. Rest in stillness and quiet.12 For each of us who does this, a day will come when one will not only feel the fruits of inner peace and calm;13 but also, one will come to know the spiritual principle that gives life its profound meaning and purpose – the spiritual principle that fuelled the rise of ancient civilisations and a ‘golden age’ when ancients built monuments; that a thousand years after their abandonment, still resonate with an energy unlike anything in the modern world.14, 15 

With all this in mind, In-between Space has developed a palette of concepts or ‘principles’ that combines the clean lines and simplicity of minimalism with Japanese-Thai traditions in building, spirituality and, the association between architecture and nature. In their various individual expressions, these concepts not only reject the destructive character of tabula rasa ['blank slate'] urbanism and by extension the modernist aesthetic which dominates our age, but also the refusal to apply the source of all genuine inspiration - the rich and ephemeral beauty pulsating throughout the natural world - to the creation or estimation of architecture and urban space.16, 17

Often taking a critical attitude towards both of these totalist ideologies, this still developing cross-disciplinary design encyclopaedia is an attempt to prove that the challenging quest of adapting and revitalising the existing for 21st century living can be often based upon small, sensitive yet powerful subtractions and additions;18 and an illustration that this area of work - 'past, present and future in continuum'19 - is both rich in creative inspiration and the most satisfying: physically, emotionally, intellectually, and spiritually.
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Matte Painting
Note 1
Click on any image to open the lightbox gallery: a feature that allows you to view and enlarge images in full-screen mode, as well as switch between them horizontally.
Fig. 1-7. South-facing semiprivate front yard seen from the south-west. The wooden elevated verandah walkway - called the ‘engawa’ in traditional Japanese architecture - brings together the inside of the house with the outside and opens on to a compact but lush assemblage of plants that has a tranquil effect upon the viewer and functions as a natural shield of privacy. 
Fig. 8-14. North-facing private backyard seen from the north-east. The heart of the large courtyard is its broad wooden open pavilion or sala, around which the high walls and a carefully composed arrangement of lightly foliaged tall shrubs and grasses create the feeling of enclosure, a retreat where solace and refuge can be taken from the larger world, and a restful, restorative spot in which to be in and to contemplate nature. ​​​​​​​
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Isometric Diagramme: Strategy & Tactics



Semiprivate Front Yard
Fig. 1. Dead Space

Fig. 2. Intervention​​​​​​​

Fig. 3. Prospect

Fig. 4. Refuge

Note 2. Dead Space
In the context of the UK’s existing housing stock, dead space can be defined as residential outdoor space – typically a semiprivate front yard and private backyard - in which one sees concrete covering land which once supported hundreds of varieties of plant and animal life; a hedge or tangle of bushes; one or two private cars, and the preternaturally ugly ‘wheelie bin’; but few people, if any, because conditions for outdoor stays [the key word is staying] is more or less impossible. Under these conditions most residents prefer to remain inside, what are most certainly sensory-reduction environments, in front of the television – the greatest mass mind control tool ever created.

Note 3. Intervention
Floor, wall, and ceiling planes serve to define and isolate a portion of space. Of these, the wall plane, being perpendicular to our normal line of sight, has the greatest effect as a spatial boundary. It limits our visual field and serves as a barrier to our movement. Intervention is a remodelling procedure, often distinguished by a small, non-structural cut or subtraction of a parapet – the ground floor masonry wall below the picture window facing residential outdoor space. Without a parapet to block, a window gives way to a door-window [Fig.5] – a generously proportioned opening bringing a rich source of natural light, more expansive views of the garden's dazzling greenery, and a two-way spatial continuum between the main living areas, outdoor space, and Nature's rhythms and cycles.

Note 4. Prospect
The prospect principle suggests people prefer spaces and environments in which they can easily survey their surroundings i.e., unobstructed lines of sight [or views] from multiple vantage points, so that internal and external areas can be easily surveyed and contemplated for both opportunity and hazard. In the context of the home, natural and architectural elements incl. open or semi-open floor plans; deep, elevated decks or terraces; the generous use of glass doors; slatted filters and screens; water features; and a backdrop of low-level planting [e.g. shrubs, perennial flowering plants] less than or equal to 1m [42in].

Note 5. Refuge
The refuge principle suggests people prefer spaces and environments in which they can quickly hide or retreat to safety if necessary e.g. edges rather than the middle of spaces, spaces with ceilings or covers overhead, and spaces with few access points [i.e., protected at the back or the side]. In the context of the home, natural and architectural elements incl. roofed, open-air architecture [e.g. a verandah or pavilion] adjacent to the outside of the main living areas; lowered or varied light colour, temperature or brightness; sober and subdued internal finishes; semi-opaque shades and blinds; and tall grasses, lightly foliaged tall shrubs, and tree canopies. 



Private Backyard

Fig. 5. Dead Space

Fig. 6. Intervention

Fig. 7. Prospect

Fig. 8. Refuge

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'Before we break through the last bushes and out of cover to the free expanse of the meadow, we do what all wild animals ... would do under similar circumstances: we reconnoiter, seeking, before we leave our cover, to gain from it the advantage which it can offer alike to hunter and hunted - namely to see without being seen.'

- Konrad Lorenz



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Isometric Impressions


Fig. 1. Mid-terrace @ semiprivate front yard with engawa verandah and tsubo-niwa garden 1.50


Fig. 2. Front facade beside engawa verandah and tsubo-niwa garden 1.24 


Note 7. Engawa verandah
Modelled on one of the most pronounced and distinguishing qualities of Japanese architecture - the open corridor or verandah constructed around the periphery of traditional Zen Buddhist temples and common dwellings - and crafted primarily from solid English oak, the engawa or en ['edge'] space comprises of: an elevated walkway and viewing deck of slatted floor planks [across its 1. 2m width]; a post-and-lintel skeleton frame raised upon a series of tapered granite bases [along its length]; and a ‘hidden roof’ or noyane consisting of an externally visible and exposed slanting roof plane [35°] with large overhanging eaves, and an intricate and elaborate lintel and rafter framework visible only from under the eaves [along its length].

Note 8. Tsubo-niwa garden
A contemporary allusion to the small to very small ‘inner courtyard gardens’ sometimes found amongst the rectangular arrangements of Japan’s traditional townhouses, shops, and temples - a tsubo-niwa is typically located between the dwarf walls of a semiprivate front yard and the raised, timber-floored deck of an engawa [verandah]. Intimate in scale, these tiny points of calm and beauty are chiefly devoted to a ‘living screen’ [Note.9], positioned in such a way as to both block the view of most of what is contained within and provide visual enjoyment while sitting and relaxing on the engawa. A white pebbled footpath, adjacent to the living screen, forms what is generally referred to as a threshold – a space, gap or interval between the very public street and the semiprivate verandah.

Note 9. Living screen
A naturalistic and contemporary reinterpretation of the more formal and monolithic privacy hedge, a living screen is a rich tapestry of evergreen foliage [tall grasses or lightly foliaged tall shrubs] and purplish pink aromatic flowers, chosen at least as much for their ephemeral and atmospheric qualities [movement, sound, light, shadow, and time] as for their attractive, year-round form, texture and colour. Often, amidst the dense foliage, a precisely positioned rain chain and curved water bowl adds to the soothing atmosphere: the soft trickle of falling water in gentle rain, reflections of the changing sky and the moon in the waters, and the song of birds as they drink, bathe, and cool themselves.


Fig. 3. Mid-terrace @ private backyard with sala pavilion and hermitage garden 1.50


Fig. 4. Rear-facade beside sala pavilion and hermitage garden 1.34


Note 10. Sala pavilion
A minimalistic blend of the traditional free-standing, open-sided sala pavilion found throughout the rice fields, river banks and gardens of northern Thailand’s foothills and valleys; and the simple yet refined shoin-zukuri style of traditional Japanese residential architecture – the solid English oak superstructure of the sala consists of a broad terrace or chaan of slatted floor planks [across its 2.4m width]; a post-and-lintel skeleton frame exalted upon post bases of tapered granite [along its length]; and a noyane or 'hidden roof' characterised by an externally visible and exposed triangular roof with large overhanging eaves, and an interlocking framework of lintels and rafters visible only from under the eaves [along its length]. 
​​​​​​​Note 11. Hermitage garden
Highly influenced by Shisendō, the private rustic masterpiece by disillusioned samurai and landscape gardener Ishikawa Jōzan, this type of garden is typically located in the more secluded and spacious private backyard and is subdivided into an inner and outer zone. The inner zone, an avenue or double-aisle of ‘living screens’ lining both edges of the elegantly furnished terrace or chaan, provides a restorative backdrop for solace, refuge and the pursuit of psychological, emotional, and spiritual transformation. The outer zone, a rectangular plane of white pebbles is intended as an open to the sky resting space for sun bathing, watching the sunset, or gazing at celestial phenomena. A distinctive and graceful Japanese maple tree, the only element in the space, offers shade from the strong rays of the sun and represents the rhythms of nature, the changes of the seasons, and the flow of time.
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'Western societies have two dimensional cultures [interior and exterior], while Japanese society has a three- or multi-dimensional culture [interior, intermediate and exterior].'

- Kisho Kurokawa



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Orthographic Impressions


Fig. 1. Whole-house roof plan 1.40


Fig. 2. Whole-house ground floor plan feat. enfilade 1.40


Note 12. Enfilade
A common feature in grand European architecture from the Baroque period onward, an enfilade [marked red] is a series of rooms in which the doors entering each room are aligned with the doors of the connecting rooms along a single axis. Borrowing its meaning from the French word
enfiler, meaning to thread a needle, an enfilade expresses a series of attributes, of which its most important one is to provide a wonderful sense of movement and flow between the heart of the dwelling - the main living spaces – and the gardens; while also offering a greater amount of daylight, depth, a sense of spaciousness, and visually pleasing vistas [views] from which to appreciate different aspect of the garden, while sitting and relaxing inside. 


Fig. 3. Ground floor plan @ back and front threshold 1.20


Note 13. Threshold
A threshold is a transitional zone of movement or pause between two adjacent yet rarely identical spaces or statuses e.g. inside and outside or a very public residential street to a very private living space. Contrary to the manner of connecting interior and exterior space today, which is too often and too quickly resolved by nothing more than a pre-fabricated standard solid door, a narrow step, and a ground material such as concrete; gravel [for its acoustic qualities], in-between spaces such as an outdoor verandah [engawa], and French doors are employed to construct a more ambiguous, aesthetically-pleasing transitional zone, that fuses the house with the atmospheric qualities of the garden, nature and the street, rather than muting it.


Fig. 4. Longitudinal elevation @ semiprivate front yard with privacy screen 1.32


Note 14. Privacy screen
Typically, the first structure encountered when visiting a home in England, is the entry gate, and its associated wall or fence; which are essentially a demarcation of territory and do little to obstruct the view of the area contained within. For many people, this does not provide the necessary prospect-refuge between themselves and the public world – that is to say, a screening element that allows one to look out on the street without being seen from the outside. One example is the use of a large number of thin repetitive wood elements, or slats, as a means of partitioning between public and private space. Breaking down the material surfaces of a boundary in this way, allows for enough privacy while maintaining visual contact with the daily activities of the street outside.


Fig. 5. Longitudinal section aa @ semiprivate front yard 1.32​​​​​​​


Fig. 6. Longitudinal section aa @ water bowl/rain chain junction 1.4


 Note 15. Water
One of the most important and common elements of a visual garden is the presence of water while seated on a deck or terrace of a verandah or pavilion; often in the form of a curved steel water bowl, precisely positioned to receive rainwater dripping from a Japanese
kusari-doi rain chain. The beauty of the kusari-doi is that it gathers water from the roof and conveys it to the bowl either in a trickle or a flood, and it does this artistically – thus transforming a dull, enclosed downspout into a visually and auditory delight, that is both relaxing and soothing.Beneath, the collection and storage of rainwater creates a calm reflection pool, that mirrors in its placid waters: the light, the colours of the sky, the shifting patterns of the clouds, the moon, the stars, and the constellations in the heavens.
 


Fig. 7. Longitudinal section cc and ground floor plan @ front door-window/threshold 1.20


Fig. 8. Longitudinal elevation @ passage/private backyard 1.32


Fig. 9. Longitudinal section dd @ private backyard 1.32


Fig. 10. Longitudinal section ee @ private backyard 1.32


Fig. 11. Longitudinal section ff and ground floor plan @ back door-window/threshold 1.20


Fig. 12. Cross-section gg @ semiprivate front yard 1.12


Fig. 13. Cross-section gg @ water bowl/rain chain junction 1.6


Fig. 14. Cross-section gg @ private backyard 1.20


Fig. 15. Cross-section hh @ front french door-engawa verandah junction​​​​​​​ 1.12


Fig. 16. Cross-section hh @ back sala pavilion-french door​​​​​​​ junction 1.12

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'We live and act within a world whose deeper aspects are hidden from our physical senses. Yet each of us possesses ther faculties which, when cultivated, can lift the veil that separates us from spiritual knowledge.'



- Arthur G. Zajonc



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Mood & Ambience
From left to right: Dollis Hill Avenue by Thomas-McBrien Architects | Brunswick by Nathan Burkett Landscape Architecture | Woodland Residence by Stimson Studio | St Petersburg by Mokh | Bluebells in Ferns by Karl Gercens | Salvia Amethyst [Woodland Sage] | Twickenham Garden by Tom Massey | Grass by Unknown | Bamboo by Ian Albinson | Shisen-do Jozanji Temple by Mugi | Granite Tapered Saddle Stone | Kazutsu no le [House with a Wind Chiney] by Toshihito Yokouchi Architect & Associate | Amanu Lounge Chair by Yabu Pushelberg & Tribu | Pure Sofa & C-Table Teak by Andrei Munteanu & Tribu | Kos Dining Table & Kos Bench by Studio Segers & Tribu | Hat House by Tina Bergman Architect | South London Garden by Studio Cullis | Robin by Peter Staniforth | Toluca by Terremoto Landscape | Newry by Straw Brothers | Camberwell by Andy Stedman Design.
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Isometric Cross-Sections

Fig. 1. Cross-section gg @ semiprivate front yard 1.16

Fig. 2. Cross-section gg @ semiprivate front yard 1.4

Fig. 3. Cross-section gg @ private backyard 1.24

Fig. 4. Cross-section gg @ private backyard 1.6

Fig. 5. Cross-section hh @ existng semiprivate front yard 1.16

Fig. 6. Cross-section hh @ semiprivate front yard 1.16

Fig. 7. Cross-section hh @ front lintel-french door junction 1.2

Fig. 8. Cross-section hh @ front french door-threshold junction 1.2

Fig. 9. Cross-section hh @ private backyard​​​​​​​ 1.20

Fig. 10. Cross-section hh @ private backyard-rear reception threshold 1.4

Fig. 11. Cross-section ii @ front reception-engawa verandah threshold ​​​​​1.8


Note 16. Trigger points
Intervention is a strategy closely tied to the concept of
trigger points - the times in the life of a home where ‘fabric first’ upgrades – comparable to the best modern house standards - can be introduced as part of a home remodelling project. This is often distinguished by the insertion of a new inner structure beside the existing internal-external wall plane. To construct the new element, a premium performance insulated plasterboard with a thermal conductivity of 0.019 W/mK is mechanically fixed to timber battens. The insulated plasterboard is then detailed with a precise 12mm shadow gap, completely covered in a textured natural clay plaster, and encased in square-edge oak mouldings. 

Fig. 11. Cross-section ii @ front reception-engawa verandah threshold 1.2

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'Only rarely, here at the opening of the twenty-first century, is architecture both art and commodity. The rest merely provide shelter with a minimum of means.'



- Stephen Kieran and James Timberlake



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Internal Decorative Finishes
Above. Natural Clay Plaster [Grey, Olive & Brown]. Brand: Clayworks
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Isometric Product Assembly Drawings



Engawa Verandah
Fig. 1. Substructure [foundations] and timber superstructure 1.16
Fig. 2. Substructure and timber raised floor, post-and-lintel skeleton framework 1.24

Specification:
a. Timber rake-rafter framework w/ overhanging eaves; b. Ridge beam. c. Timber lintel [beam] system w/ rabbeted oblique scarf splice; d. Timber post [column] system; e. Ishibatate ['standing on stones'] base support system; f. Timber slat floorplank system; g. Timber joist subfloor/grid system w/ spacers; h. Cast-in-place concrete floor slab on grade.

Fig. 3. Timber rake-rafter framework and noyane [hidden roof] @ exterior facade 1.4


Specification:
a. 25 Gauge galvanised steel counterflashing; b. 25 Gauge galvanised steel base flashing w/ 50mm fixed cleat; c. 20x70/142mm Machined air-dried oak board-and-batten shingles; d. 18x38mm Treated softwood batten [interior support]; e. 25x115mm Air dried oak half-lap sheathing; f. 50x100mm Air-dried European/English [
Quercus Robur] structural oak rafter w/ overhanging eave [34.5°]; g. 50x200mm Air-dried European/English [Quercus Robur] structural oak rake w/ overhanging eave [34.5°]; h. 75x150mm Air-dried European/English [Quercus Robur] structural oak ledger beam w/ gooseneck splice & anchor bolt hole; i. 12x149mm [WA12199] wedge anchor bolt.

Note 17. Noyane
The hidden roof [
noyane] is a type of roof - widely used in Japan's Buddhist temples and Shinto shrines - composed of a true roof above and a second roof beneath. The true roof ['exposed roof' in English and 'cosmetic roof' in Japan] 
is a generously proportioned slanting roof plane with deep overhanging eaves and externally visible wood or slate shingles. The second roof - an intricate and elaborate framework of interlocking beams, rafters, and half-lap sheathing - is visible only from under the eaves and is therefore called a 'hidden roof' [giving its name to the whole structure]. 

Fig. 4. Timber post-and-lintel skeleton framework and noyane [hidden roof] @ rake-eave junction 1.4


Specification:
a. 20x70/142mm Machined air-dried oak board-and-batten shingles; b. 18x38mm Treated softwood batten [interior support]; c. 25x115mm Air dried oak half-lap sheathing; d. 15x15x150mm Oak draw pin; e. 125x150mm Air-dried European/English [
Quercus Robur] structural oak lower lintel [beam] w/ rabbeted oblique scarf splice; f. 125x125mm Air-dried European/English [Quercus Robur] structural oak post [column]; g. 50x200mm Air-dried European/English [Quercus Robur] structural oak rake w/ overhanging eave [34.5°]; h. 50x100mm 8 Gauge galvanised steel angle valley gutter; i. 
50x100mm Air-dried European/English [Quercus Robur] structural oak rafter w/ overhanging eave [34.5°]; j. 5x25mm 8 Gauge galvanised steel flat bar gutter bracket; k. Mono II Down Up surface mounted outdoor LED.

Fig. 5. Timber post-and-lintel skeleton framework @ rabbeted oblique scarf splice [midpoint] 1.2


Specification:
a. 15x15x150mm Oak draw pin; b. 125x150mm Air-dried European/English [
Quercus Robur] structural oak upper lintel [beam] w/ rabbeted oblique scarf splice; c. 125x150mm Air-dried European/English [Quercus Robur] structural oak lower lintel [beam] w/ rabbeted oblique scarf splice; d. 
50x100mm Air-dried European/English [Quercus Robur] structural oak rafter w/ overhanging eave [34.5°]; e. 125x125mm Air-dried European/English [Quercus Robur] structural oak post [column].


Note 18. Rabbeted oblique scarf splice
Without a single nail or screw,
miyadaiku [traditional Japanese carpenters] join wood, directly to wood - a method of joinery known as kanawatsugi - and in so doing managed to build some of the world’s longest-lasting wooden structures. One of the many elaborate techniques developed to join members together was the okkake daisen tsugi – a splicing joint in which two ends of the joints are identical and referred to as the upper wood and lower wood. Two mortises are deepened through the depth of the splice for inserting draw pins. The joint is assembled by sliding the internal face of the upper wood over the internal face of the lower wood, keeping the surfaces of the middle drops surfaces d in close contact. The pieces are then pressed together and secured by pounding in two draw pins, effectively inter-locking the front and back surfaces of the joint. 

Fig. 6. Timber post-and-lintel skeleton frame and ishibatate @ raised floor 1.2


Specification:
a. 
125x125mm Air-dried European/English [Quercus Robur] structural oak post [column]; b. 125/150mm Solid granite [tapered square] staddle stone w/ 16x230mm prottruding steel rod; c. 5x90mm Stainless steel smooth shank framing nails [34° Round Head]; d. 44x94mm [PAR] Air-dried European/English [Quercus Robur] structural oak floor plank; e. 10x70x70mm Heavy duty plastic solid square packer @ 400 o.c.; f. 47x100mm Eased-edge C24 kiln dried treated softwood timber joist @ 400mm o.c.; g. 195x195x100mm Cast-in-place polished concrete plinth; h. 150mm Cast-in-place concrete floor slab on grade w/ 1.2° slope for water run-off.


Note 19. Ishibatate
Because the structure is a simple post and beam framework, the Japanese style of Ishibatate or floating post-on- stone construction has been perfected over 2000 years of trial and error. Therefore, only at places of actual structural support i.e., at the posts, is the groundsill [the low part or sub-structure of an architectural structure] provided with a simple foundation of natural or hewn stone that raises and keeps the larger portion of the wooden members from being in touch with water that is naturally absorbed from stones or particularly concrete foundations. In addition, winds can move freely below the frame drying the wood if it should get wet and, any maintenance is easily facilitated by easy access to the structural foundation.
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'[Frank Lloyd] Wright openly admired this particular characteristic of the Japanese dwelling [traditional Japanese post-and-lintel system of construction], having delighted in the fact that it was impossible to tell precisely ‘where the garden leaves off and the garden begins.'



- Edward S. Morse



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Sala Pavilion

Fig. 7. Substructure [foundations] and timber superstructure 1.20

Fig. 8. Substructure and timber raised floor, post-and-lintel skeleton framework 1.24


Specification:
a. Timber rake-rafter framework w/ overhanging eaves; b. Timber ridge beam w/ rabbeted oblique scarf splice on timber post-and-lintel subsystem; c. Timber lintel [beam] system w/ rabbeted oblique scarf splice; d. Timber post-and-lintel subsystem; e. Timber post [column] system; f. Ishibatate ['standing on stones'] base support system; g. Timber slat floorplank system; h. Timber joist subfloor/grid system w/ spacers; i. Cast-in-place concrete floor slab on grade.

Fig. 9. Timber post-and-lintel skeleton framework and noyane [hidden roof] @ gable 1.8


Specification:
a. 25 Gauge galvanised steel ridge flashing w/ 50mm fixed cleat; b. 20x70/142mm Machined air-dried oak board-and-batten shingles; c. 18x38mm Treated softwood batten [interior support]; d. 25x115mm Air dried oak half-lap sheathing; e. 50x100mm Air-dried European/English [
Quercus Robur] structural oak rafter w/ overhanging eave [34.5°]; f. 50x200mm Air-dried European/English [Quercus Robur] structural oak rake w/ overhanging eave [34.5°]; g. 125x150mm Air-dried European/English [Quercus Robur] structural oak ridge beam w/ rabbeted oblique scarf splice; h. 125x125mm Air-dried European/English [Quercus Robur] structural oak ridge brace; i. 125x150mm Air-dried European/English [Quercus Robur] structural oak lintel [beam] w/ rabbeted oblique scarf splice; j. 125x150mm Air-dried European/English [Quercus Robur] structural oak tie-lintel [cross-beam]; k. 15x15mm Oak draw pin; l. 
125x125mm Air-dried European/English [Quercus Robur] structural oak post [column]; m. Mono II Down Up surface mounted outdoor LED.

Fig. 10. Timber post-and-lintel skeleton framework @ rabbeted oblique scarf splice [midpoint] 1.4


Specification:
a. 15x15x150mm Oak draw pin; b. 125x150mm Air-dried European/English [
Quercus Robur] structural oak upper lintel [beam] w/ rabbeted oblique scarf splice; c. 125x150mm Air-dried European/English [Quercus Robur] structural oak lower lintel [beam] w/ rabbeted oblique scarf splice; d. 15x15x150mm Oak draw pin; e. 125x150mm Air-dried European/English [Quercus Robur] structural oak tie-lintel [cross-beam]; f. 
125x125mm Air-dried European/English [Quercus Robur] structural oak post [column]; g. 50x100mm Air-dried European/English [Quercus Robur] structural oak rafter w/ overhanging eave [34.5°]; h. Mono II Down Up surface mounted outdoor LED.

Fig. 11. Timber post-and-lintel skeleton framework and noyane [hidden roof] @ rake-eave junction 1.6


Specification:
a. 20x70/142mm Machined air-dried oak board-and-batten shingles; b. 18x38mm Treated softwood batten [interior support]; c. 25x115mm Air dried oak half-lap sheathing; d. 
5x25mm 8 Gauge galvanised steel flat bar gutter bracket; e. 125x150mm Air-dried European/English [Quercus Robur] structural oak upper lintel [beam] w/ rabbeted oblique scarf splice; f. 50x200mm Air-dried European/English [Quercus Robur] structural oak rake w/ overhanging eave [34.5°]; g. 50x100mm Air-dried European/English [Quercus Robur] structural oak rafter w/ overhanging eave [34.5°]; h. 15x15x150mm Oak draw pin; i. 125x150mm Air-dried European/English [Quercus Robur] structural oak tie-lintel [cross-beam]; j. 125x125mm Air-dried European/English [Quercus Robur] structural oak post [column]; k. Mono II Down Up surface mounted outdoor LED.

Fig. 12. Timber post-and-lintel skeleton frame and ishibatate @ raised floor 1.4


Specification:
a. 
125x125mm Air-dried European/English [Quercus Robur] structural oak post [column]; b. 125/150mm Solid granite [tapered square] staddle stone w/ 16x230mm prottruding steel rod; c. 44x94mm [PAR] Air-dried European/English [Quercus Robur] structural oak floor plank; d. 195x195x100mm Cast-in-place polished concrete plinth; e. 47x100mm Eased-edge C24 kiln dried treated softwood timber joist @ 400mm o.c.; f. 10x70x70mm Heavy duty plastic solid square packer @ 400 o.c.; g. 195x195x100mm Cast-in-place polished concrete plinth; h. 150mm Cast-in-place concrete floor slab on grade w/ 1.2° slope for water run-off; h. 50mm Coarse concrete sand/sharp sand setting; i. 100mm Type 3 Open-graded crushed aggregate; j. Stable [Uniformly dense] soil base.


​​​​​​​Visual Gardens
Fig. 13-17. Finished geometry, edges and water features @ semiprivate front yard/private backyard 1.1-1.4
__________________________________________



Preliminary Working Drawings

Fig. 1. Whole-house roof plan 1.40

Fig. 2. Whole-house ground floor plan 1.40

Fig. 3. Ground floor plan @ back and front thresholds 1.20

Fig. 4. Ground floor plan @ back threshold 1.4

Fig. 5. Ground floor plan @ front porte-fenetres/thermal insulation junction 1.2

Fig. 6. Ground floor plan @ front deck/water bowl junction 1.8

Fig. 7. Longitudinal elevation @ street/semiprivate front yard 1.32

Fig. 8. Longitudinal elevation @ passage/private backyard 1.32

Fig. 9. Longitudinal section aa @ semiprivate front yard 1.32

Fig. 10. Longitudinal section aa @ rain chain/water bowl junction 1.4

Fig. 11. Longitudinal section bb @ semiprivate front yard 1.32

Fig. 12. Longitudinal section bb @ timber post-and-lintel structural framework 1.2

Fig. 13. Longitudinal section bb @ timber post-and-floor structural framework 1.2

Fig. 14. Longitudinal section cc @ front facade 1.32

Fig. 15. Longitudinal section cc and ground floor plan @ front porte-fenetre/threshold 1.16

Fig. 16. Longitudinal section cc @ front facade/pitched roof junction 1.4

Fig. 17. Longitudinal section dd @ private backyard 1.32

Fig.  18. Longitudinal section dd @ private backyard 1.6

Fig. 19. Longitudinal section ee @ private backyard 1.32

Fig. 20. Longitudinal section ee @ timber post-and-lintel structural framework 1.4

Fig. 21. Longitudinal section ee @ timber post-and-floor structural framework 1.4

Fig. 22. Longitudinal section ff @ back facade 1.32

Fig. 23. Longitudinal section ff @ back threshold/porte-fenetre 1.8

Fig. 24. Cross-section gg @ semiprivate front yard/street 1.20

Fig. 25. Cross-section gg @ semiprivate front yard 1.12

Fig. 26. Cross-section gg @ front wall-to-roof junction 1.2

Fig. 27. Cross-section gg @ eave/rain chain junction 1.1

Fig. 28. Cross-section gg @ rain chain/water bowl junction 1.6

Fig. 29. Cross-section gg @ privacy screen 1.2

Fig. 30. Cross-section gg @ private backyard 1.20

Fig. 31. Cross-section hh @ semiprivate front yard 1.12

Fig. 32. Cross-section hh @ front lintel and threshold junctions 1.2

Fig. 33. Cross-section hh @ private backyard 1.12

Fig. 34. Cross-section hh @ back timber post-and-lintel structural framework 1.6

Fig. 35. Cross-section hh @ back threshold 1.6

Fig. 36. Cross-section hh @ back threshold 1.2

__________________________________________



Construction Operations
​​​​​​​Preliminary surveying

Specification:



Total external area:


The contractor verifies the major dimensions, roadway geometry, property boundaries, construction limit line, stockpiling areas, and other horizontal measurements.

Tbc.
Clearing and demolition

Specification:





Total external area:


All trees, shrubs, rock outcrops, slabs, structures, and utility lines within the project area that are to be abandoned or moved. Nb. All trees so designated on the drawings are wrapped or enclosed to protect them from root or bark damage. Some trees may be temporarily transplanted to avoid construction damage.

65 m²
Topsoil stripping and stockpiling

Specification:



Total external area:


The contractor removes all topsoil within the grading limits and stockpiles the soil in whatever areas will be convenient for future respreading at the completion of the project.

65 m²
Rough grading

Specification:




Total external area:


By blasting, trenching, backfilling, and cutting and filling to the proposed new subgrade, the contractor prepares all subgrade surfaces to receive foundation footings and subbase material for below- and on-grade structures.

65 m²
Foundation footings

Specification:




Total external area:


At the completion of the rough grading, 'in situ' or 'cast-in-place' reinforced concrete components such as a slab-on-grade or plinth are set and cured at the site in prefabricated engineered formwork.

26 m²
Finish grading

Specification:





Total external area:


The project is staked out and resurveyed to establish the finished geometry and the elevations of paving, planting areas, and edges. The paved areas are then graded to finer tolerances, and base material is installed. Topsoil is spread over the rough grades in the planted areas to within a tolerance of ±25 to 75 mm [1 to 3 in].

33 m²
Japanese timber framed building

Specification:





Total external area:


The contractor assembles various prefabricated timber components such as post-and-lintel skeleton framing on a foundation of natural staddle stones; plank-and-beam framing [decking supported directly by joists]; and single and dual pitched roof structures framed with rafters and spanned with a two-layer system of decking and shingles.

23 m²
Planting and seeding

Specification:





Total external area:


The contractor plants living barriers or semi-transparent privacy screens - native and exotic, medium-to-tall, and lightly foliaged trees and bushes; a small proportion of compatible exotics; massing plants; moss, rocks, and water features - meant to be seen while seated from multiple viewpoint outside the garden.

16 m²
Project Data
Summary

Client:
Project name:
Project category:
Project type:
Building type:
Location:
Completion:


Existing building dimensions

Semiprivate front yard area:
Private backyard area:

Total external area:

Ground floor area:
First floor area:

Total internal area:

Total site area:


Total useful floor area [TUFA]

Existing 2-bed 'back-to-back' mid-terrace
Home for the future


Private
Home for the future
Residential
Remodelling
2-bed 'back-to-back' mid-terrace
Greater Manchester, North West England
2025




17 m²
48 m²

65 m²

50 m²
50 m²

100 m²

115 m²




100 m²
133 m²
Note 1. Site area [SA]
The term ‘site area’ [SA] means: ‘…the total area of the site within the site title boundaries [or the total area within the site title boundaries defined by the employer as the site for the building], measured on a horizontal plane.’; NRM1 [New Rules of Measurement]: Order of cost estimating and cost planning for capital building works.

Note 2. Total usable floor area [TUFA]
The term 'total useful floor area' [TUFA], or 'total usable floor area' means: ‘...the total area of all enclosed spaces measured to the internal face of the external walls.’; Part L of the Building Regulations. It suggests that this is equivalent to the 'gross floor area' as measured in accordance with the guidance issued to surveyors by the Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors [RICS].

References and Footnotes



1. Mrs. Basil Taylor [1912]. Japanese Gardens
2. Carl G. Jung [1960]. The Structure and Dynamics of the Psyche [Collected Works of C. G. Jung].
3. Theodore J. Kaczynski [1995]. Industrial Society and Its Future
4. Jan Gehl [2011]. Life Between Buildings: Using Public Spaces
5. ‘The modern office building is the archetypal example of [a sensory-deprivation environment]: The spaces are square, flat and small, eliminating a sense of height, depth, and irregularity. The decor is rigidly controlled to a bland uniformity from room to room and floor to floor … Most modern office buildings have hermetically sealed windows. The air is processed, the temperature regulated. It is always the same. The body’s largest sense organ, the skin, feels no wind, no changes in temperature, and is dulled ... The light remains constant from morning through night, from room to room until our awareness of light is as dulled as our awareness of temperature, and we are not aware of the passage of time … When we reduce an aspect of environment from varied and multidimensional to fixed, we also change the human being who lives within it. Humans give up the capacity to adjust, just as the person who only walks cannot so easily handle the experience of running. The lungs, the heart and other muscles have not been exercised. The human being then becomes a creature with a narrower range of abilities and fewer feelings about the loss. We become grosser, simpler, less varied, like the environment’; Jerry Mander [1978]. Four Arguments For The Elimination Of Television
6. A. M. Meerloo [1956]. The Rape of the Mind: The Psychology of Thought Control, Menticide, and Brainwashing
7. Daniele Ganser [2005]. Fear As A Weapon: The Effects of Psychological Warfare on Domestic and International Politics.
8. Jan Gehl [2011]. 
9. Vaclav Havel [1 Jan 1985]. The Power of the Powerless Mass. Citizens Against the State in Central Eastern Europe.
10. Kisho Kurokawa [1988]. Rediscovering Japanese Space
11. Temenos: The ancient Greeks coined the word temenos to indicate a piece of land … near a temple or sacred enclosure, set aside to create a sanctuary. The word temenos in Greek literally means, ‘cut off’ and signifies an area marked off from common usage or daily activity, a safe or protected space, isolated from everyday living spaces … for the purpose of spiritual, emotional and psychological transformation. For the ancient Greeks, it was important not to pollute temenos with daily concerns and habits and for that reason the area was sectioned off from the rest of the world.’; Anne Bogart [2016]. Temenos.
12. Michael A. Hoffman II [1989]. Secret Societies and Psychological Warfare.
13. Alan Seale [2019]. Resting In the Act of Contemplation.
14. Rudolf Steiner [1904]. How to Know Higher Worlds: A Modern Path of Initiation.
15. Agrippa’s Diary [2023]. There Is But One Religion In All The World - Manly P. Hall.
16. Howdie Mickoski [2019]. Falling for Truth: A Spiritual Death and Awakening.  
17. Botond Bognar [1985]. Contemporary Japanese Architecture: Its Development and Challenge.
18. Mark Anthony Signorelli; Nikos A. Salingaros [2012]. The Tyranny of Artistic Modernism
19. Graeme Brooker; Sally Stone [2004]. Re-readings: Interior Architecture and the Design Principles of Remodelling Existing Buildings.
20. Patrick Nuttgens [1988]. Understanding Modern Architecture.
In-between Space 2024
kkgarg@inbetweenspace.co.uk​​​​​​​
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